Manual Der Reaktor (German Edition)

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By keeping the plasma in the chamber for longer it got the world record for fusion production using a stellarator. This makes us optimistic for our further work. The goal of the project is to make stellarators commercially viable. At that temperature, the hydrogen from the plasma will convert into helium releasing more energy than is required to heat up the plasma. The strong magnetic fields and shape of the machine are optimized to minimize interactions.

W7-X is made of 50 superconducting magnets, each around 3. Despite its size, W7-X will never produce more energy than it consumes. It is just a proof-of-concept for a much bigger commercial version. The other design for fusion reactors is called a tokamak. Electricity volumes may be transferred partially or in total from one NPP to another. For details, see Section 2. The regulatory body is composed of the nuclear licensing and supervisory authorities of the Federal Government and state governments. The federal ministry competent for nuclear safety and radiation protection is the BMU.

The licensing procedure for operation and decommissioning and the continuous regulatory supervision of the facilities lie within the responsibility of the individual federal states Land Ministry. A detailed description of the regulatory authorities is given in section 3.

The RSK provides advice in matters of nuclear safety including matters with respect to the physical protection of nuclear installations. The SSK provides advice in matters of protection against ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, and the ESK in matters of nuclear waste management. The members of the commissions are obliged by statutes to express their opinion in a neutral and scientifically sound manner and are appointed by the BMU.

The authorities in charge may consult authorised experts in the licensing and supervisory procedures. These can include both independent experts and independent technical expert organizations. The BMU draws on the external expertise of several such organizations. Figure 2 shows their geographical location and their status as of the end of May According to the current legal situation, the licence for power operation will expire at fixed shutdown dates or even before if the electricity volume for that installation, as listed in the Atomic Energy Act or as derived from an allowable transfer of electricity volume, has been produced.

In , NPPs contributed approximately In total, 46 research and training reactors were built and operated in Germany. At present, most research reactors are shut down or being decommissioned, though seven research facilities — three with a thermal power of more than 50 kW th and four small training reactors — are still in operation. Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report. According to the Atomic Energy Act, a licence for operating an NPP is only granted if the applicant proves that the necessary technical and organizational precautions for safe operation have been taken.

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During operation, the plant operator must fulfil his or her responsibilities continuously, which the licensing and supervisory authority verifies and ensures. Planned modifications of an NPP are to be assessed systematically with regard to the impacts on the safety level of the NPP. Modifications with insignificant impacts on safety levels do not require a licensing procedure, but they do require accompanying inspections by the safety authorities within the framework of the supervisory procedure.

Significant modifications of an NPP or its operations require a licence from the competent authority see Section 3. According to the Atomic Energy Act, safety reviews must be carried out every ten years and follow the standardized national criteria. Safety reviews consist of a deterministic safety status analysis, a probabilistic safety analysis and a deterministic analysis on physical protection of the plant.

"fluidized-bed reactor" translation into German

The results are then submitted to the supervisory authority and usually assessed by independent experts who act by order of the supervisory authority. The German National Action Plan identified that further work was required in some technical areas which are relevant to the stress test. A national assessment report was submitted and published. For further information, see www. As of 30 April , 29 nuclear power plants, including prototype and experimental reactors, had been permanently shut down. Of these, 25 facilities are being dismantled and returned to greenfield status including one facility in safe enclosure and three facilities have already been completely dismantled and the sites returned to greenfield status and released from nuclear regulatory control.

One facility is in post-operation. Further information shutdown date and reason, etc. For decommissioning, a licence is required from the competent licensing authority of the state in which the nuclear installation is sited. The licensing and supervisory process is described in Sections 3.

Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) | Reactor Safety Commission

Each decommissioning project runs individually. The course of the project, the financing, the choice of the decommissioning strategy and many other boundary conditions depend strongly on the type of plant and the owner of the plant. NPPs and uranium enrichment and fuel assembly plants are usually overseen by energy supply companies. The licensees are obliged to continuously build up financial reserves for the decommissioning of their installations. On the other hand, research reactors, prototype and experimental reactors as well as prototype plants for fuel supply are mostly located in research centres or at universities.

Their decommissioning is financed predominantly by the federal budget. The decommissioning of the NPPs Greifswald and Rheinsberg of the former East Germany is financed from the federal budget as well, as is the decommissioning of facilities for uranium ore mining and processing in the former East Germany. Under the Act, the Federation is responsible for the implementation and financing of storage and disposal of radioactive waste, while the NPP operators remain responsible for the financing and management of decommissioning of the nuclear power plants and the proper packaging of the nuclear waste.

The spent fuel and radioactive waste, as well as the storage facilities defined in the Act, are in the process of being transferred to the Federation. TABLE 6. Reactor name Shutdown date Shutdown reason Decom. For further details on nuclear energy policy, see Section 1. ON SE. In recent decades, several nuclear power plants and test facilities have already been successfully dismantled in Germany. There are also a number of plants in the decommissioning phase. Licensees are responsible for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as mentioned in Table 6.

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Companies involved in the operation of NPPs are also involved in their decommissioning. Two NPPs are still in operation Philippsburg 2 and Neckarwestheim 2 but have already applied for decommissioning. PreussenElektra GmbH, as a subsidiary of E. Both NPPs have filed an application for decommissioning in and , respectively, but no licence was granted yet. EWN GmbH receives its financial resources solely from the federal budget. With the commercial use of nuclear energy, various nuclear facilities dedicated to the fuel cycle and waste management have emerged in Germany.

Today, only a few of them are in operation. Several facilities have been shut down and are being decommissioned. In Germany, the search for mines containing uranium ore began very early. However, for economic reasons, only a few were of interest and were operated as pilot mines. In , West Germany built a very small utility for yellow cake production at Ellweiler. The supervisory authority stopped work in The facility was decommissioned and restoration was finalized in In East Germany, the large uranium production facility Wismut was made operational, initially supplying uranium also to the Soviet Union.

Mining was stopped on 31 December This facility is being decommissioned and remediation is under way. The design capacity was expanded in stages. The additional systems were constructed after and commissioned gradually. In , the conversion facility was licensed at a capacity of Mg of uranium per year.

At the Siemens Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Hanau Siemens Brennelementewerk Hanau, Siemens AG , mixed oxide fuel elements and uranium fuel elements for light water reactors were produced from until and from until , respectively. The facility was finally decommissioned in Decommissioning of this plant was finalized in The decommissioning process has been finalized for this plant status: installation was removed, clearance of the site. The company Hochtemperatur-Brennelement-Gesellschaft HOBEG operated a fuel fabrication plant at Hanau for the production of spherical fuel elements, composed of highly enriched uranium and thorium for high temperature reactors, from until The utility was finally decommissioned in Twelve on-site storage facilities at NPP sites have been licensed and are all in operation.

Three central storage facilities for spent fuel are in operation: the Transport Cask Storage Facility Ahaus, for irradiated fuel and other radioactive substances; the Transport Cask Storage Facility Gorleben, for both irradiated fuel and vitrified reprocessing products; and the Transport Cask Storage Facility in the storage facility North Rubenow Zwischenlager Nord ZLN for spent fuel elements, nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste from decommissioning of the NPPs Greifswald and Rheinsberg.

At the beginning of , the BGZ will also be responsible for the 12 on-site storage facilities for spent fuel at the NPP sites. In , it will assume responsibility for the on-site storage facilities for radioactive waste. In Germany, the development of reprocessing technologies started in the s.

Leipzig L-IV experiment accident

In , the plans for reprocessing were abandoned and it was intended to transport irradiated fuel elements into other member states of the European Union for storage and reprocessing. These transports were banned in , with the last transport allowed in At that time, the direct final disposal of fuel elements became the aim of waste management. The pilot reprocessing plant at Karlsruhe WAK operated from until The facility has since been shut down and is in the process of being dismantled. The highly radioactive solutions of fission products high active waste concentrate present at this plant were vitrified at the on-site vitrification plant.

In total, 56 tonnes of vitrified waste were produced and shipped to the storage facility Zwischenlager Nord in February The project for a reprocessing plant at Wackersdorf Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Wackersdorf started and was abandoned in [8]. From the outset, it was intended to dispose of all kinds of radioactive waste in deep geological formations.

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Today, the Asse II mine faces two major problems: on the one hand, saline solutions enter the mine, on the other hand the stability of the mine openings is endangered. It was decided that retrieval of the radioactive waste stored in Asse II would be the best option to protect the public and the environment; a closure concept is being prepared. The licensing procedure for its closure is in progress. The former iron ore Schacht Konrad was licensed as a repository in May , to dispose of radioactive waste with negligible heat generation. Since the licence was confirmed by the Federal Administrative Court on 26 March , the Konrad mine is being converted to a repository for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation.

Between and , the salt dome of Gorleben was investigated for its suitability as a repository for all types of radioactive waste, in particular for high level waste. Since , it is mandatory to directly dispose of the spent fuel from commercial electricity production that currently exists or will be generated in the future in Germany.

However, other kinds of high level radioactive waste, in particular vitrified waste from reprocessing, were generated due to the differing regulation in earlier times see above and are to be disposed of in Germany as well. The site for a disposal facility for high level radioactive waste in Germany is to be determined according to the Site Selection Act. The amendment of this act was based on the recommendations of the Commission on Storage of High-Radioactive Waste Materials, which consulted on the fundamental issues related to the search procedure from to and consisted of 33 members representing different parts of society, including scientists, public groups and the Federal Parliament and Federal Council Bundestag and Bundesrat.