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Down to the Sea Again. Redferns First Shoot and the Chiefs Courtmartial. Ishikawa Teahouse. The Road March to Nago. Loading for Suez. TaiwanA Show of Farce. The Battle of White Beach. Going Nowhere Fast. Basking in the Cold War Joseph R. Army U. The Rock. Camp Hague. Learning How.

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In the United States his friends belonged to the Federalist Party, which represents an interesting phenomenon since Federalists are usually viewed as being generally skeptical toward foreign revolutions. In spite of this long political solitude, Miranda entered the Spanish American symbolic pantheon as the precursor of independence. In Argentina, tensions between the military and Indigenous People have been present since the formation of the nation-state in the late 19th century.

The confrontation between the military and Indigenous nations were seen as the main opponents to a civilized nation. Against analysis that regards relations between the military and Indigenous People as inherently violent, a new line in historiographical studies traces too the trajectories of Indigenous troops joining the military.

The 19th-century relations between the military and Indigenous People were therefore more complex than an opposition between contrary nations. Within these alliances and relations of proximity, military officers produced a specific racialization of Indigenous bodies related to positive perceptions of them as strong and skillful soldiers. These sets of ideas, present in military memoirs in the 19th century, re-emerge in how Toba Indigenous men experience being racialized during the Mandatory Military Service in the mid- and late 20th century. National security and continental defense were the main reasons given by the American countries consenting to their uprooting.

Initially, US and Latin American agencies arrested and deported male ethnic Japanese, regardless of their citizenship status. During the second stage, women and children joined their relatives in the United States. Most forced migration originated in Peru. Brazil and Mexico established similar displacement programs, ordering the population of Japanese descent to leave the coastal zones, and in the case of Mexico the border areas. In both countries, ethnic Japanese were under strict monitoring and lost property, employment, and family and friend relationships, losses that affected their health and the opportunity to support themselves in many cases.

Latin American Japanese in the United States remained in camps operated by the Immigration and Naturalization Service and the army for the duration of the war and were among the last internees leaving the detention facilities, in At the conclusion of World War II, the Latin American countries that had agreed to the expulsion of ethnic Japanese limited greatly their return. Some internees were deported to Japan from the United States by the closure of the camps.

Those who remained in North America were allowed to leave the camps to work in a fresh produce farm in Seabrook, New Jersey, without residency or citizenship rights. In , immigration restrictions for former Latin American internees were lifted. Latin American governments have not apologized for the uprooting of the ethnic Japanese, while the US government has recognized it as a mistake.

Nearly forty recorded Spanish—Mapuche parlamentos had taken place in Chile and near Mendoza since While key chronologies, personalities, groups, and historical avenues remain unidentified, researchers must draw knowledge from existing texts. The authors cited in this article for further study cover only a small fraction of the myriad topics presented by the war. World War I set in motion a unique power readjustment in Latin America, the likes of which had not been experienced in the region since the s.

Most significantly, the temporary suspension of economic ties with Europe disrupted everyday processes that elites and commoners had previously taken for granted. Changes in economy and finance triggered a struggle between indigenous Americans, peasants, workers, elites, and immigrants, setting the stage for the social and political changes of the s. Amidst the upheaval of World War I, non-elite Latin American groups successfully focused national politics on regional and ethnic issues, while elite Latin Americans weighed the potential advantages of ties with Spanish and Italian authoritarianism.

The war heralded the end of Belgian influence and of significant French power in the region, British acceptance of U. The creation of the League of Nations, a development alien to Latin American political culture, caught the region off guard. The myth of the army as embodiment of national essence would last until the s. The Mexican-American War ranks among the most consequential events in the history of both nations. Army patrol in the disputed Nueces Strip on April 25 of that year, two underlying causes rendered conflict inevitable.

The dispute over Texas was the first, and the desire of both nations to control the Mexican provinces of Nuevo Mexico and California was the second. President James Knox Polk identified the acquisition of that territory as the principal objective of his administration. The conflict also remains noteworthy for the extent to which the political milieu in both countries proved as important as events on the battlefields. In the United States, the national unity evident at the outbreak of the war faded in the face of sectional rivalries, unexpectedly high casualties, and declining relations between the executive and legislative branches.

The military phases of the war fall into two segments. In the first, forces considerably smaller than those deployed in later phases of the war fought in Texas and in the Mexican provinces of Nuevo Mexico, California, Tamaulipas, and Nuevo Leon. In the following seven months, both governments sought to obtain the best terms. A rising tide of violent rural rebellion in Mexico and a rising tide of Whig opposition to the Polk administration in Washington served as catalysts during the negotiations.


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The coup that took place in Brazil on March 31, can be understood as a typical Cold War event. Supported by civilians, the action was carried out by the armed forces. Its origins hark back to the failed military revolt, headed by the Brazilian Communist Party PCB , in November of , stirring up strong anticommunist sentiments. The Estado Novo coup, which occurred two years later, was supported by the army war and navy ministers.

At the end of the Second World War, officers who had taken part in the struggle against Nazism in Italy returned to Brazil and overthrew the dictatorial Vargas regime, who nonetheless returned to power through the presidential elections. During the s, the military came to be divided into pro-American and nationalist factions. The coup was frustrated by the resistance of the governor of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Yet the Goulart administration was marked by instability, in the midst of intense social struggles and by a sharp economic crisis.

The outcome of this drama began to take shape in March , when the government took a leftwards turn. On March 31, military forces carried out the infamous coup. The Goulart administration collapsed. Social movements were left waiting for orders to resist that never came.


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In the period —, Paraguay began to redevelop economically after its devastating loss in the War of the Triple Alliance — Turning to a liberal economic model popular in the region at the time, government officials began selling off large tracts of land to foreign investors, in particular Argentine investors. The liberal era in Paraguay was notoriously turbulent as political rivals often relied on Civil War to gain power.

Nonetheless, this period was pivotal in helping to shape ideas about the nation. Draft Memorandum by J. Draft Memorandum from William P. Bundy, "Where are We Heading? Statement Submitted by Adlai Stevenson to U. Address by William P.

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Policy in Viet-Nam". Memo from W. Memorandum of Conversation, "Vietnam Panel" July 10, Statement by Secretary of Defense, Robert S. Statement by President Johnson, U. Legal Memorandum Prepared by Leonard C. Address by Ambassador Arthur J. Goldberg, U. Department of State, Memorandum William P.

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Memorandum from CIA. Statement by Arthur J. Goldberg before the U. Sir Montague Burton Lecture by W. Dyson, R. Gomer, S. Weinberg, S. Hans J.

The Cold War: Every Month

Vietnamese and Chinese Delegations; Beijing, 11 a. Role in Pacification Revolutionary Development , 9 May Udall, 2d District of Arizona, October 23, James Risen, "U. Surprised at Tet: U. Naval Forces in Vietnam, by Glenn E. Gareth Porter "Indochina Chronicle," 33, June 24, Conversations between the Soviets and the Vietnamese, Moscow and the Vietnam Peace Talks, New York Times, February 4, Memorandum of Conversation between President Nixon, Kissinger and Ambassador Dobynin in which Kissinger asks for a "reasonable interval" between an agreement and the establishment of any government in South Vietnam , Washington, May 14, Gerhard, June Memorandum from Henry A.

Read e-book Basking in the Cold War: A Marine’s Story

Kissinger for the President, "Conversation with Soviet Ambassador Dobrynin ," 1 October , enclosing memorandum of conversation between Dobrynin and Kissinger, 27 September Haldeman Diary. Dobrynin and Kissinger records of meeting with Nixon, 20 October President Nixon's Speech on " Vietnamization ," November 3, The "Chicago Seven" Trials, The My Lai Courts Martials.

President Nixon's Speech on Cambodia, April 30, Betts, June Dobrynin record of meeting with Kissinger in which the North Vietnamese offensive is discussed, 3 April Ford Library. Jane Fonda Broadcast from Hanoi, August 22 Excerpts from the Paris Accords, January 27, Public Law 93rd Congress, H. Assessment of General Fred C. Weyand's Report on Vietnam, April 5, Malcolm Browne, "How Did it Happen?

John W. Finney, "U.